Knowledge & Pizza

- The more people who share a pizza, the less pizza for each person.

- The more people who share knowledge the more knowledge for everyone.

- Don't get confused between pizzas and knowledge
.


Tim Backer

Le KM et les Médias sociaux

Les médias sociaux peuvent-ils faire partie d'une solution interne de Knowledge Management ? Sans équivoque, la réponse est "oui!"

La finalité d'une stratégie de Knowledge Management est de trouver les connaissances dont vous avez besoin quand vous en avez besoin et d'apprendre des erreurs passées, qu'elles soient de votre fait ou non, pour éviter de les reproduire... Les médias sociaux vous permettent d'établir des connexions avec d'autres personnes, et de partager des connaissances.

Cependant, bon nombre des modèles actuels d'usage des médias sociaux proviennent du "social networking" entre les individus sur le web, ou du marketing social des entreprises utilisant des outils comme Twitter et Facebook pour développer leur présence, recueillir des données, et interagir avec leurs clients. Il existe peu de modèles sur la façon dont les médias sociaux peuvent être utilisés dans le cadre de la gestion des connaissances au sein d'une organisation. Nous ne pouvons pas importer des outils comme Facebook et Twitter au sein de notre organisation, et s'attendre à ce que le KM se produise "comme par magie" de la même manière que les réseaux sociaux fonctionnent sur le web. Nous devons être plus intelligents que cela - nous devons être en mesure de combiner les médias sociaux et la gestion des connaissances pour obtenir une solution au service des objectifs business.

A faire et ne pas faire :

Voici quelques conseils sur l'utilisation des médias sociaux dans le cadre du Knowledge Management (Social KM) au sein d'une organisation.

  • Ne pas se contenter d'introduire les outils et d'attendre qu'ils "fassent du KM". L'histoire du KM est jonchée de projets qui ont échoué là où la technologie a été introduite dans l'isolement, dans l'espoir d'une solution miracle. Il n'y a PAS de solution technologique miracle - même pas la technologie des médias sociaux. La définition de rôles, de processus et d'une gouvernance doit toujours accompagner la technologie.
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  • Introduire une stratégie de Social KM avec un objectif business à l'esprit. Gestion des connaissances, et médias sociaux doivent être introduits pour répondre à un besoin business, non pas parce qu'ils sont cool ou tendance ! Or, "connecter les gens entre eux" n'est PAS un objectif business; en revanche, "améliorer l'efficacité grâce à la reproduction des meilleures pratiques dans l'industrie manufacturière" ou encore "augmenter sa part de marché en développant et en réutilisant la connaissance du client" sont des objectifs business...
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  • Ne pas se concentrer uniquement sur la publication. Nous avons travaillé avec un client qui récompensait fortement la publication de contenus ; à travers de multiples canaux sociaux, y compris des blogs, des business case, des wikis, des microblogs, etc. Une telle quantité de contenus a été publiée, dupliquée et diffusée à travers de nombreux canaux, qu'elle a créé une vaste quantité de "bruit", pour très peu de réutilisation des connaissances. L'objectif du Social KM est de maximiser la réutilisation, et non pas la publication !
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  • Mettre l'accent sur la résolution de problèmes. Les usages professionnels les plus efficaces du Social KM se concentrent sur la résolution de problèmes, en permettant aux collaborateurs de poser des questions et recevoir des réponses rapides de la part de leurs pairs. Cela aide les utilisateurs, et l'organisation toute entière !
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  • Ne pas supposer que tout le monde contribuera naturellement. Les sites web comme Wikipedia, qui fonctionnent sur les contributions volontaires, obéissent à la règle du 90/9/1 : 90% de gens lisent mais ne contribuent pas, 9% contribuent occasionnelement, et 1% sont des contributeurs majeurs. Ce ratio signifie que vous n'avez accès qu'à 2 ou 3% de la connaissance globale de l'entreprise. Vous pouvez améliorer ce ratio grâce au Social KM et en appliquant les conseils suivants.
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  • Relier les outils sociaux aux rôles, aux responsabilités et aux processus. Pour battre la règle du 90/9/1, liez vos médias sociaux à vos Communautés de Pratique, et demandez au "facilitateur" (ou animateur) d'encourager les contributions. Utilisez les processus KM comme le AAR (After Action Review), l'assistance des pairs ("Ask The Experts"), etc. enrichis par les outils sociaux.
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  • Ne pas introduire des outils juste parce que "d'autres personnes les recommandent". Une institution gouvernementale a récemment abandonné l'utilisation de Yammer, qui avait été fortement recommandé par une autre organisation, parce que les collaborateurs ont trouvé que, étant tous situés dans le même bâtiment, il était plus facile de se rencontrer pour parler à quelqu'un.
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  • Adapter les outils aux besoins des utilisateurs. Réfléchissez à qui a besoin de quel savoir, et quand. Puis réfléchissez à la façon dont il peut être délivré. Les collaborateurs nomades, comme une équipe de commerciaux, ont sans doute besoin d'accéder aux outils sur leurs smartphones. Le personnel de bureau peut utiliser un système 100% web. Certaines personnes ont besoin d'accéder au savoir détenu par leurs pairs, d'autres peuvent vouloir utiliser un référentiel global... Choisissez l'outil qui répondra le mieux à vos besoins !


Lire le dossier complet
(en anglais).

Interview d'expert : Nicolas NADAL, IBM Global Services, FRANCE

Nicolas NADAL    

What is your vision on Knowledge Management future ? What do you think the main trends are today and will be in the next years ?

Quoting Jean Pierre Le Goff, sociologist,  “Knowledge, techniques and competencies are continuously renewing themselves, and time seems too short to adapt oneself”. There is a challenge because knowledge takes years or even centuries to harvest and digest. Indeed management means nowadays short term overexploiting of resources. What’s the sake for a manager to invest in knowledge in his entity while he is going to move to another job role or company in the following two years?

So the trends today are: knowledge management is shrinking in most organizations, and the tendency is to try and google or source or crowdsource what you need to know at little or no cost. The overall result will be obviously poor or of ill-omen. In a few areas, knowledge centers will specialize and attract knowledgeable people. A little like middle-ages universities or monasteries.

How organizations can use Knowledge Management to improve their competitiveness and optimize their businesses results? And what are the main expected benefits?

They must select who to ask for important questions, whether internal or external. They must use technology watch (ranging on all continents and cultures).

What are your recommendations to start an effective Knowledge Management project and its successful roll-out?

First thing you can ask is:

- Do you believe sincerely a tool (e.g. Web 2.0) will solve your problems and that people will capitalize knowledge just because you said so?

- Is it mission critical or some desirable or fashionable purpose?

- What are you ready to invest in terms of time, money? Who will capitalize and drive others to do so? Which effort-recognition are you going to provide?

Well if the management can answer these questions and is ready to persist over time, you can face launching a project. If not, forget it.


In your opinion, what are the major hurdle to overcome and the pitfalls to avoid?

The short-term, overexploiting management tends by nature to limit time spent on knowledge. The term “management” implies knowledge is something that must be “managed”. Why is it then that “management” often ends up being inefficient?


Do you think there are cultural specificities on Knowledge Management maturity depending on your geographical location?

Knowledge brings social status as much as money, which is a good thing to begin with.

Le KM c'est de la paresse !

Imaginez le scénario suivant : vous travaillez dur sur un projet ou une tâche, vous avez un délai à respecter, mais vous êtes coincé, vous ne savez pas comment en venir à bout.

Que faites-vous?

Et bien, si vous êtes familier avec le Knowledge Management, vous:

  • - demandez de l'aide à vos collègues,
  • - demandez de l'aide à la Communauté de pratiques dont vous êtes membre,
  • - cherchez dans votre système de localisation d'expertise ou dans votre annuaire enrichi,
  • - postez une question sur votre plate-forme interne de Questions/Réponses ou sur les médias sociaux,
  • - faites une recherche dans votre système de GED, votre ECM, ou tout autre référentiel interne pour trouver la réponse.


Résultat ? Vous trouvez rapidement la réponse, en faisant un travail beaucoup moins fastidieux que si vous aviez dû créer la solution vous-même et vous respectez les délais. Avec tout ce temps gagné, vous prenez quelques minutes pour poster la solution à votre problème, afin d'aider la personne qui pourrait être à votre place dans les semaines, mois ou années à venir !

Auteur : Stephanie Barnes
Source : Missing Puzzle Piece Consulting Blog

 

Interview d'expert : Jens Øjvind Nielsen, CEO LeadingCapacity ApS, DANEMARK

Jens Ojvind Nielsen    

What is your vision on Knowledge Management future ? What do you think the main trends are today and will be in the next years ?

Collaboration and improved performance...
 

How organizations can use Knowledge Management to improve their competitiveness and optimize their businesses results? And what are the main expected benefits?

- Faster implementation of changed business procedures and methods
- Lower costs per delivered unit
- Reduced risk in projects


What are your recommendations to start an effective Knowledge Management project and its successful roll-out?

- Convince top management about the feasibility on KM and commit them to their role in their new learning organization
- Select an important pilot and execute with success
- Delegate KM support/management to a qualified change manager


In your opinion, what are the major hurdle to overcome and the pitfalls to avoid?

- To get priority for a long term strategy
- Risks related to the focusing on organisational learning competing with other needed efforts
- Yes - we have allready a learning organization
- Managing by cost budget in public organisations may be a hinder for commitment to learning and performance improvement


Do you think there are cultural specificities on Knowledge Management maturity depending on your geographical location?

Yes – some cultures focused historically on IT-environments and failed. High power distance may limit delegation of learning power and horizontal communication

 

Portrait of the modern knowledge worker

Knowledge Worker

The brain of a knowledge worker - and that is just the beginning...

Source : KM for me… and you?

Interview d'expert : Jean-Yves BARBIER, Ecole Polytechnique, FRANCE

Jean-Yves BARBIER    

What is your vision on Knowledge Management future ? What do you think the main trends are today and will be in the next years ?

The rise of Knowledge Management (KM) in the 90’s was, according to me, tightly connected with project management. Seen as a response to an accelerated competitive environment, project management started to change the way organizations use knowledge.
In the years 2000, Internet and networking tools, by creating a real collective mind, deeply changed the practice and speed of knowledge creation and management. From a hierarchical and analytical way of dealing with knowledge, we start moving to a more fuzzy and intuitive knowledge management pattern.
I think, in the next decade, two main trends will be essential :  instant everywhere access to  quite all explicit knowledge will shape a new scheme of interaction between humans ;  and  thanks to neurocognitive science research progress,  we will upgrade our understanding of the tacit dimension of knowledge and its unconscious part, seen as a core competency regarding creativity and innovation.
 

How organizations can use Knowledge Management to improve their competitiveness and optimize their businesses results? And what are the main expected benefits?

What we could call : “KM compass” in project management is  “to aim locking a degree of freedom only when having raised optimal  Knowledge level”, as put by Midler (1993)[i]. Project management and its core teams patterns focus more on multi-dimensional shared visions and ability to create a learning trajectory. Dassault System 3D conception software’s efficiency is based on this statement : to see the same things !

To leverage competitiveness i.e nowadays largely an ability to create competitive advantages through innovation, companies can thus turn to this spiraling model of product conception. Arising against classical, more sequential, profession based processes where the emphasis is put on field expertise, the spiraling model aims to speed up interactions as the best shortcuts to support innovation.
Another channel is to learn from creative industries their manner to manage creativity and talents. Paris (2011)[ii], for instance, focuses since many years on how to create organizational environments and disposals to foster business oriented creativity.

What are your recommendations to start an effective Knowledge Management project and its successful roll-out?

First, you have “to know what you know” and this is really a huge problem. That means creating a kind of datacenter automatically alimented with business datas, in which your teams can share information and knowledge.
But, as put by Cholle (2011)[iii], intuitive intelligence (80% of our cognitive process is done by our unconsciousness) is as important as rational and analytical approaches. So, your KM needs to care about the tacit dimension of knowledge, uneasy to catch, difficult to deal with, but critical when regarding performative interactions.



In your opinion, what are the major hurdle to overcome and the pitfalls to avoid?

One of the major hurdles to overcome is surprisingly just reaching a clear diagnosis about KM potential, as we generally make confusion about data, information and knowledge on the one hand, and on the other hand, underestimate the role of tacit knowledge. Then, as knowledge is power, the risk of sharing and its organizational impact in terms of management is always a concern. But the biggest risk is certainly to avoid the KM subject.
The best way to address KM stakes is may be to rely on external tools specialists, creating a partnership that has three advantages : 1) staying neutral regarding power distribution, 2) improving maturity of KM schemes and disposals, 3) having a clear vision of the “self-acting” dimensions of tools when introduced into organizations - and that’ s essential !
To improve our skills to tap into things we know but we don’t know we are knowing”, I’ve proposed a matrix to understand how to leverage tacit knowledge in business situations, by paying attention to the type of managerial mandate (Barbier,2005)[iv]. This model was applied for instance to French clusters (Barbier, 2009)[v].


Do you think there are cultural specificities on Knowledge Management maturity depending on your geographical location?

In France, land of Descartes, we are certainly overestimating explicit knowledge. We could certainly learn a lot from oriental civilizations and even from so called “ancient primitive societies”.

[i] Midler C. (1993), L’Auto qui n’existait pas, management des projets et transformation de l’entreprise, Dunod, Paris

[ii] Paris T. (2010), Manager la créativité. Innover en s'inspirant de Pixar, Ducasse, les Ateliers Jean Nouvel, Hermès...

[iii]Cholle F. (2011), The intuitive compass : why the best decisions balance reason and instinct, Wiley.

[iv]Barbier J.-Y. (2005), Breaking the tacit dimension : the double helix of knowledge creation, Passion for knowning Colloquium, Trento, Italy.

[v] Barbier J.-Y. (2009),  « Comment modéliser la dynamique collaborative des pôles de compétitivité pour orienter les politiques publiques : une approche par la connaissance tacite », XVIIIe Conférence Internationale de Management Stratégique, Grenoble, 3-5 juin.

Interview d'expert : Stephanie Barnes, Chief Chaos Organizer, Missing Puzzle Piece Consulting, CANADA

Stephanie BARNES    

What is your vision on Knowledge Management future ? What do you think the main trends are today and will be in the next years ?

My vision on the future of Knowledge Management is one that sees it integrated in the normal, everyday operations of all organizations and that uses supporting technology efficiently and effectively. The trends today seem to be towards the socialization of knowledge; I think that will continue over the next few years.

How organizations can use Knowledge Management to improve their competitiveness and optimize their businesses results? And what are the main expected benefits?

The benefits of Knowledge Management are widespread but often intangible and hard to measure. This makes Knowledge Management a difficult activity for many to understand and implement. This intangibility is one of the reasons why, in the early years of Knowledge Management becoming a discipline, IT vendors and indeed organizations latched on to technology as the solution to the problem. Technology makes Knowledge Management tangible, people could see it and understand it, but technology by itself is not the answer. Implementations that focused on technology largely failed as Akhavan (2005), et al identified in article entitled, “Exploring Failure-Factors of Implementing Knowledge Management Systems in Organizations.” Technology is only an enabler. It is the people and processes that are critical. It is the intersection of all three: People, Process, and Technology that leads to the most significant payoffs and benefits for organizations.

One of the biggest benefits of any Knowledge Management system is making available information and knowledge from the rest of the organization. Whether we are talking about business intelligence, CRM, expertise location, records management, enterprise content management, portals, blogs, collaboration, or any other KM technology, they all make knowledge available to improve consistency and standardization in processes, and enhance decision-making. This often results in staff delivering better quality products and services as they are not re-inventing the wheel every time they have to do something.


What are your recommendations to start an effective Knowledge Management project and its successful roll-out?

Understand what problem the organization needs to solve/resolve and consider how to align people, process, and technology with the organization’s strategy in order to solve the challenge/problem that was identified, using knowledge management activities.


In your opinion, what are the major hurdle to overcome and the pitfalls to avoid?

Silos

Silos are created when too much emphasis is placed on a single activity whether it’s the Technology, People, or Process to the exclusion of the other two key success activities. For example, focusing on technology and ignoring the people and process part of the programme. Technology is easy to focus on, but it only addresses one of three keys to success.  Developing and implementing people and process initiatives in conjunction with the technology will enable the success of the over-all initiative. By ignoring people and process activities, an organization will have another technology platform that is underutilized.

People/groups not participating

There is always a risk of people/groups not participating, i.e. they will create their own local solutions or will just not participate and that they will continue in their less efficient and effective behaviours. Lack of participation also results in a sub-optimal solution being rolled out, having user input is critical to designing a solution that will be user-friendly, and address pain points helping rather than hindering people’s ability to do their jobs.

Loss of momentum

Loss of momentum occurs when the excitement, enthusiasm, and interest built up in the requirements phase of the project is lost due to delays in selecting and implementing the technology or otherwise moving forward with the KM initiative. At the early stages people are interested and involved, but it is easy for them to lose that focus and commitment /enthusiasm and transfer it to other initiatives.

Passion to lead KM

Not identifying someone with the capacity, commitment and passion to lead the initiative. The KM initiative is not technically difficult but there are significant risks around how it is led, developed and implemented because people have to change their behaviours; facilitating/championing this change requires passion and commitment on the part of the leader. It needs to be someone who has credibility with both management and front-line workers. It also needs to be someone who is senior enough in the organization to have positional power, i.e. someone with influence and visibility.

Link to the business case is lost

Losing the link to the business case is a risk, especially when KM has been viewed as a quick fix for a problem or if a solid business reason for KM is not established. It is critical that the focus remains on solving the business issues that gave rise to this KM initiative in the first place. Losing that link will result in a lack of direction and potential failure of the initiative.

Organizational Culture

The culture of the organization can result in implementation issues and failure. The culture must be taken into consideration and factored into in the change management activities for the programme through communication, and rewards and recognition initiatives.

Sponsorship

There is a risk that sponsorship of the initiative will not be clear and directed. Should the programme lose its sponsorship or that sponsorship wane, the programme will be in jeopardy. It is important that people understand the management team supports and endorses the initiative.


Do you think there are cultural specificities on Knowledge Management maturity depending on your geographical location?

Yes, and depending on the culture of the organization, and the individual teams within the organization.

 

Interview d'expert : Pascal Bernardon, Directeur de Programme KM, FRANCE

Pascal BERNARDON    

What is your vision on Knowledge Management future ? What do you think the main trends are today and will be in the next years ?

In my opinion, I think Knowledge Management is going to be more valued by companies. The economic context provides the real value of knowledge and skills used every day by employees, team managers have to explore different ways to achieve their goals, customers claim more agility to get the right service at the right moment for the right price. So to get or to save more customers, companies would have to manage and improve every day their Knowledge Networks. A Knowledge Network is an environment in wich people share and capitalize connections that provide access to the right item, employee, process, information, supplier, customer. In other words, I call this environment the RELATIONSHIP ECONOMY.
 

How organizations can use Knowledge Management to improve their competitiveness and optimize their businesses results? And what are the main expected benefits?

First organizations have to launch pragmatic actions to demonstrate the benefits, to become aware of the organisational change, and to involve more business communities in future Projects. Change managment has to be built by everybody, everyday, and become a new behavior in the culture of the organization. Knowledge Management is a new way to work with all stakeholders, KM gives the power to empower business communities. The big challenge is to know what is the right knowledge I could use to be more efficient. And the right knowledge is the cognitive trigger to extract, to capitalise, to share and to improve everyytime it is necessary.

What are your recommendations to start an effective Knowledge Management project and its successful roll-out?

To be pragmatic, to begin with a little project, to put in place an open-minded environment where skateholders could exchange with complete transparancy. Do not forget to put in place measurement criterias in accordance with business work unit to demonstrate benefits.


In your opinion, what are the major hurdle to overcome and the pitfalls to avoid?

To forget to put in place an individual and a collective, and a internal and external reward system.


Do you think there are cultural specificities on Knowledge Management maturity depending on your geographical location?

Oh yes, the culture of the organization is one major point to manage at the beginning of the project. On the same subject the approach and the meaning of each stakeholders  is often different. The community manager has to foster exchanges between members of the community to build a common language and meaning share by everybody. Then the mutlicultural community is able to build knowledge capitalisation and transfers.

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